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Discovery of Sub-atomic Particles,Atomic Models
Developments Leading to the Bohr’s Model of Atom
Bohr’s Model for Hydrogen Atom
Towards Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom,Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom
Importance of Chemistry,Nature of Matter
Uncertainty in Measurement, Laws of Chemical Combinations
Dalton’s Atomic Theory,Atomic and Molecular Masses
Mole Concept and Molar Masses,Percentage Composition
Stoichiometry and Stoichiometric Calculations
Intermolecular Forces,Thermal Energy
Intermolecular Forces vs Thermal Interactions,The Gaseous State
The Gas Laws, Ideal Gas Equation
Kinetic Energy and Molecular Speeds, Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
Behaviour of Real Gases: Deviation from Ideal Gas Behaviour,Liquefaction of Gases,Liquid State
Thermodynamic Terms,Applications
Measurement of ∆U and ∆H: Calorimetry,Enthalpy Change, ∆rH of a Reaction – Reaction Enthalpy
Enthalpies for Different Types of Reactions, Spontaneity
Gibbs Energy Change and Equilibrium
Equilibrium in Physical Processes, Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium
Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant ,Homogeneous Equilibria,Heterogeneous Equilibria,
Applications of Equilibrium Constants “
Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G
Factors Affecting Equilibria,Ionic Equilibrium in Solution,Acids, Bases and Salts,
Ionization of Acids and Bases,Buffer Solutions, Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Basic organic chemistry
Definition of organic compound
Representation of organic compound
Number of σand πbonds
Degree of carbon
Degree of hydrogen
Degree of Alkyl halides
Degree of Alcohols
Degree of Amines
Degree of unsaturation (DU)
Calculation of DU
Fundamental definition of DU
Homologous series (H.S.)
Classification of stereoisomerism
Geometrical Isomerism (G.I.)) G.I. in C=C system
G.I. in Ring system
G.I. due to double bond inside the ring
G.I. in C=N system
E/Z Nomenclature
Number of geometrical Isomers
Physical properties of geometrical isomers
Structural Identification
Degree of unsaturation (DU)
Catalytic hydrogenation H2/cat
Monochlorination Cl2/hν
Reductive ozonolysis
Oxidative ozonolysis
Practical organic chemistry (POC)
Lassaigne’s test
When double bond is in conjugation with vacant -p
When double bond is in conjugation with fully filled -p
When double bond is in conjugation with fully filled -p
When double bond is in conjugation with half filled-p
When +ve charge and lone pair are adjacent
d-orbital resonance
Conditions of Resonance
Mesomeric effect (M)
Estimation of Carbon & Hydrogen
Estimation of nitrogen
Dumas method”
Kjeldha’s method
Estimation of sulphur
Carius method
Problems on Carius method
Estimation of phosphorous
Purification of organic compounds
Differential extraction
Classification of elements
Mendeleev’s periodic table
Modern periodic law
Modern periodic table classification of elements into blocks
Classification of elements into types
Periodicity, Atomic size
Atomic and ionic radii in groups and periods
Introduction of Electronic theory of valencyIonic bond
Favourable conditions for ionic bond.
Lattice energy
Factors which influence lattice energy
Born haber cycle Crystal structures of NaCl and CsCl(only)
Fajans rules
Properties of ionic compounds”
Covalent bomd
Lewis dot formula
Formal charge
Valency Bond theory(VBT)
Orbital concept
Overlapping of atomic orbitals
Sigma and Pi bonds and limitations of VBT
General properties of covalent compounds
VSEPR theory
Position of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table
Properties of Dihydrogen
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)
Heavy Water (D2O) Dihydrogen as a Fuel
Atomic radius
Physical appearance
B.p and m.p Reaction of alkali metal with O2,
Reducing nature of alkali metal
Solution in liquid ammonia
Diagonal relationship between lithium and magnesium
Compouns of sodium Na2O2
Formation of NaOH
Properities of NaOH
Sovary process
Group 13 Elements: The Boron Family
Important Trends and Anomalous Properties of Boron
Some Important Compounds of Boron
Uses of Boron and Aluminium and their Compounds
Group 14 Elements: The Carbon Family
Important Trends and Anomalous Behaviour of Carbon
Allotropes of Carbon
Some Important Compounds of Carbon and Silicon
Environmental Pollution
Atmospheric Pollution
Water Pollution”
Soil Pollution
Industrial Waste
Strategies to control Environmental Pollution
Green Chemistry “
Introduction, Classification, Types, Space unit cell,Crystal Systems, Bravais Lattices
Close packed structers, Voids, Packing efficiency,Numericals related to formulae of compounds involving packing,
Calculations related to unit cell,Limiting radius ratio, Crystal defects
Crystal defects, Electrical properties & Magnetic properties of solids
Types of solutions, Expressing concentration of solution
Solubility, Vapour pressure of liquid solutions
Ideal and Non-Ideal solutions
Colligative properties
Determination of Molar mass and Abnormal molar mass
Electrochemical cells,Galvanic cells, Nernst Equation
Conductance, Specific conductivity, Equivalent and molar conductances, determination of resistance.
Variation in conductivity with concentration & Kohiraush law, Application of Kohraush Law
Electrolytic celss & products of Electrolysis, Faraday’s laws.
Batteries, Fuel cells, Corrosion
Introduction, reaction factors influencing rate of reaction.
rate law & units of rate constant, order of reaction, Molecularity
Integrated rate equation of zero order &first order
Collision theory of chemical reactions, Pseudo first order reaction
Temperature dependence of the rate of reaction
Adsorption,Catalysis, Enzyme catalysis
Colloids: Introduction, classification, preparations
Purification of colloids & properties of colliods
Protective colloids & applications of colloids, emulsions, Micelles, Cleansing action of soap
Carbocations C⊕
Stability of carbocations
Rearrangement of carbocations
Type of shifts
Migratory aptitude
Migratory aptitude of aromatic group Ring expansion (RE)
Ring contracting (RC)
Aromatic carbocations
Electrophiles, E⊕
Nucleophiles, Nu
Experimental order of Nu
Strong Nu with weak basic character
Strong Nu with strong basic character
Weak Nu with weak basic character
Solvation of Nu
Organometallic compounds
Preparation of G.R.
Preparation of GR
Solvents of GR
Reaction of GR
Catalytic hydrogenation
Catalytic hydrogenation
Partial hydrogenation
Lindlar’s catalyst
Birch reduction
Hydroboration Reduction (HBR)
Transfer Hydrogenation
Clemmensen reduction
Wolf-Kishner reduction”
Oxidation-strong oxidising agent
Potassium dichromate K2C2O7/H2SO4
Table of oxidising agents
Oxidation of alcohols
Mild oxidising agents
Oxidation of periodic acid HIO4
Oxidation of aldehydes
Oxidation with NBS
Tollen’s reagent
Fehling’s Reagent
Benedict’s solution
Schiff’s reagent
Oxidation of selenium dioxide SeO2
Side-Chain oxidation
Direction effect on disubstituted benzene
Directive influence in naphthalene
Directive influence in diphenyl
Directive influence in Anthracene and phenanthrene
Directive influence in pyridine & pyrrole
Preparation of phenol
Preparation of phenol from acid hydrolysis of cumene
Chemical reaction of phenol
Halogenation of phenol
Protection of –OH group
Nitration of Phenol
Sulphonation of Phenol
Preparation of Aldehydes & Ketones
Hydrolysis of gem. dihalide
From dry distillation of Calcium. salt of fatty acid
From acid chloride (Rosenmunds)
Formylation of benzene (Gattermann Koch Ald. Synthesis)
Chemical reaction of carbonyl compound
Nucleophilic addition reaction
Addition of H2O (Formation of hydrates)
Addition of R–OH (Formation acetal/Ketone)
Addition of G.R.
Addition of HCN (Formation of cyanohydrin)
Intramolecular cannizzaro
Tishchenko reaction
Haloform reaction
Iodoform test
Baeyer – Villiger Oxidation
Wittig reaction
Benzoin condensation
Carboxylic acid preparation
Chemical reactions of carboxylic acids
Hunsdiecker reaction
Decarboxylation reaction
Decarboxylation of acids by soda lime (SL)
Decarboxylation by heating
Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky (HVZ) reaction
Acid derivatives
Preparation of acid derivatives
Esters- preparation
Hydrolysis of ester
Acid hydrolysis of ester
Acid amide
Hofmann Bromamide reaction
Occurrence of Metals
Concentration of Ores
Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore “
Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy
Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy”
Oxidation Reduction
Uses of Aluminum,
Zinc and Iron
Group-15 elements
Group-15 elements
Group-16 elements
Group-17 elements
Position in the Periodic Table
Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements
General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-Block)”
Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements
The Lanthanoids
Werner’s Theory of Coordination Compounds
Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds”
Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds
Isomerism in Coordination Compounds
Bonding in Coordination Compounds”
Bonding in Metal Carbonyls
Importance and Applications of Coordination Compounds
Nucleic Acids
Classification of Polymers
Types of Polymerisation Reactions
Molecular Mass of Polymers
Polymers of Commercial Importance